Bumi manusia by Pramoedya Ananta Toer, , Hasta Mitra edition, in Indonesian - Cet. ke pdf. TRANSLATING “BUMI MANUSIA” NOVEL INTO ENGLISH: SOME In translating an Indonesian novel entitled “Bumi Manusia” into English, the translator. To ask other readers questions about Bumi Manusia, please sign up. .. Saya nggak tau apa yang saya harapkan saat membaca buku yang dipuja2 banyak.
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anggap remeh si manusia, yang kelihatannya begitu sederhana biarpun . paling dikenal Bumi Manusia Bumi Manusia adalah buku pertama dari Tetralogi. PDF | In Indonesia, literature has been one of critical media to respond to the writers from different era: Bumi Manusia () by Pramoedya Ananta Toer, .. akan hinggap di gorden presidenan dan buku programma gedung kesenian. PDF | In the process of translation, the translator uses class shift as a translation strategy to achieve a communicative translation. The aims of.
Even her social-class in lower than Minke. She is better than Europeans woman. According to Piaget and Kohlberg in Teeuw, , moral development is correlated with the development of individual intelligence, so it should when the intellectual development has reached maturity, the moral development must reach a level of maturity.
Kau terpelajar, Minke, Seorang terpelajar harus juga belajar berlaku adil sudah sejak dalam pikiran, apalagi dalam perbuatan.
Itulah memang arti terpelajar itu. Toer, 77 In this case, Kenny in Nurgiyantoro, stated that the moral of the story is usually meant as a suggestion relating to certain moral teachings are practical, which can be taken or interpreted through stories concerned with the reader.
He is a "hint" that had been given by the author of various matters relating to the behavior and manners association. He is practical because the "clues" that can be displayed, or found his model, in real life, as the model shown in the story through the attitudes and behavior of the characters. The quotation above has a hint or clue that was given by the author. The hint is that a student must have good moral character because they are the future generation. Minke is a revolutionist in this novel, then inevitably he must have a high level of education to improve the nation.
Indirectly, the authors stated that to change a person's social class is by education. We do not forget in a literary work must have an element of aesthetic as well.
Horace held pleasure to be the chief purpose of poetry, for he recommends the profitable merely as a means to give pleasure to the elders Abrams, Barok in Teeuw, said that there are two theories about aesthetics, subjective and objective. Aesthetics are subjective of beauty that there is in the eye that sees. While the objective is to put the beauty of the objects seen. Mataku mulai menggerayangi ruang tamu yang luas itu: perabot, langit-langit, kandil-kandil kristal yang bergelantungan, lampu-lampu gas gantung dengan kawat penyalur dari tembagaentah di mana sentralnyapotret Ratu Sri Emma yang telah turun tahta terpasang pada pigura kayu berat.
Dan untuk kesekian kali pandang ini berhenti pada wajah Annelies juga. Sebagai penjual perabot rumah tangga, sekali caup sudah dapat aku menentukan barang-barang itu mahal belaka, dikerjakan oleh para tukang yang mahir. Permadani di bawah sitje bergambarkan motif yang tak pernah kutemui. Mungkin pesanan khusus. Lantainya terbuat dari parket, tegel kayu, yang mengkilat oleh semir kayu.
Toer, 27 Horace in Nurrachman, 84 said that fiction invented in order to please should remain close to reality. The quotation above shows the beauty of house where Nyi Ontosoroh live that is different from other indigenous homes.
In real life we know the architecture of the houses of Europe are very luxurious and magnificent. As well as the description of her house is not much different from the reality. This is the aesthetic objective because house is the object seen. Someone will say that the house is beautiful because he see how the house, he do not see who the owner is. The aesthetic objective is shown to object.
Sesungguhnya: kecantikannya memang memukau. Di tengah-tengah kemewahan ini ia nampak agung, merupakan bagian yang mengatasi segala yang indah dan mewah. In literary works, aesthetics is needed in order not to make the reader feels bored. The quotation above shows Anneliess facial beauty. This is the aesthetic subjective because there is in the eye that sees. Not all of the readers can believe how beautiful Annelies.
Your play must not demand that the audience believe anything you take a whim to portray Nurrachman, Beberapa orang perempuan menahan Annelies dan mengajaknya bicara, minta perhatian dan bantuan.
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Dan gadis luar biasa ini seperti seorang ibu melayani mereka dengan ramah tamah. Hunter Mead in Gie, said that aesthetic values that give a certain meaning to other things objects, ideas, events.
For example fun events that will always be remembered. The beauty is not only seen from the shape of its form. An aesthetic beauty is not something that is always beautiful to the eye, but also beautiful to value. Also occurring in these points. From the novel snippet above, the beauty of the values that occur inside of Annelies.
She is European nobility but she does not feel disgusted to natives and she is not arrogant, Annelies it has no such behavior. She is happy to hang out and help the natives. To Sidney, poetry, by definition, has a purpose to achieve certain effects in an audience, it imitates only as a means to the proximate end of pleasing, and pleases, it turns out, only as a means to the ultimate end of teaching; tor 'right poets are those who 'imitate both to delight and teach, and delight to move men to take that goodness in handed Abrams, As a result, throughout this essay the needs of the audience become the fertile grounds for critical distinctions and standards.
The great classical exemplar of the application of the rhetorical point of view to poetry was, of course, the Art Poetica of Horace. Horace's criticism is directed in the main to instruct the poet how to keep his audience in their seats until the end, how to induce cheers and applause, how to please a Roman audience, and by the same token, how to please all audiences and win immortality. The context shows that Horace held pleasure to be the chief purpose of poetry, for he recommends the profitable merely as a means to give pleasure to the elders, who, in contrast to the young aristocrats, 'rail at what contains no serviceable lesson.
The pleasure of literature, we need to maintain, is not one preference among a long list of possible pleasures but is a "higher pleasure" because pleasure in a higher kind of activity. And the utility the seriousness, the instructiveness of literature is a pleasurable seriousness, not the seriousness of a duty which must be done or of a lesson to be learned but an aesthetic seriousness, a seriousness of perception.
When a work of literature functions successfully, the two "notes" of pleasure and utility should not merely coexist but coalesce. This is what can be proved in a novel Bumi Manusia that instructing and pleasure both are related. The literary works must have both. Instructing is addressed to young readers, while pleasure showed to elder readers in order that the reader does not leave the enjoyment in reading literature. References: Abrams, M. Mas Marcodikromo has got 7 years in jail because he responded to mockery of Dutch writers.
Van Haastert has got just 3 days in jail, although he wrote about the native as a bad and rough coachman, backward farmer, and lazy supervisor, the natives are stupid, despotic, etc.
Termorshuizen, History of De Luce family D2. Many guests and food at the sugar party D3. The anonymous letters report the love-affair of Leoni and Theo van Oudijck. Leoni gets stressed although her husband does not believe it.
The rebellion can be stopped after Van Oudijck visited Raden Ayu. He remembered her about the loyalty of her husband and warned her that he would punish the rebels. The Resident thought that the rebellion was organized by Raden Ayu, but he did not say that to her.
A climax event is the spitting to Leoni. The family of Raden Ayu use magic guna-guna against the family of the Resident. When Leoni took a bath in the late afternoon, the sirih-water wets her body. Nobody is there around the bathroom, except Oerip. Leoni becomes ill, but she tells everybody that she had stepped on a frog. Now, the house of the resident is very quiet. Leoni goes to Surabaya, Doddy stays with De Luce family, and their housemaids have gone. Introduction of himself: Minke and HBS 2.
S and marries with Annelies Mellema 11 K Ir. Mellema with his demand of the legacy right vs. Minke is the main-character as well as the narrator in BM. The novel is like his memoirs.
He opens the story with his note which invites the reader to follow his experiences in the colonial system. Minke is very proud as a student of HBS. He is curious to know about modern technology from around the world. As the narrator, Minke tells about his meeting with the family of Mellema. Mellema calls Minke as a Monkey, although Minke wears a European costume, he is still a monkey.
Robert and Annelies have European nationality because their father recognized them officially as his children at the age of ten years old. It means that, at that moment, Nyai Ontosoroh is not their legal mother anymore. Legal apartheid is applied in the colonial sytem. Minke and Annelies have an Islamic marriage after Mellema died. Their marriage- happiness is not persistent.
The demand of the first son of Mellema, Ir. Maurits Mellema to get the legacy if his father forced the colonial law to cancel the marriage of Minke-Annelies. Annelies is 16 years old, and so she is under Ir. Annelies is an European; her status is higher. The colonizers are the migrants.
They left their country, their society, and met the people who were different from them. Instead of being cornered, they create a discourse and fetish about their superiority and ideal identity. The Native is forced to realize their lack of identity in the liminal space.
Bartels reports about the attitude of Maluccan people in colonial times. They spent their money to send their children to learn the Dutch language. To reach the White or ideal identity, the Native mimics the Dutch people.
Nyai Ontosoroh is very angry with her father, so she does not want to meet him anymore. She always asks her husband, Mr.
Mellema, to get recognition for her new identity. She wants to speak Dutch perfectly; she wants to have the ability and knowledge at the same level as Dutch women. She succeeds. But her achievements do not place her status of identity at the same level as the Dutch women automatically. She becomes a different person and now she is similar with the Dutch women whom she has imitated.
A judge in Court forces her to speak in Malay language and does not permit her to speak Dutch.
Nyai Ontosoroh must realize that she is a native. The Dutch throws her to the original place, the original society. Minke has finished his school, HBS Surabaya. He achieves the best final score among all of the students in Surabaya. He defeats the other students, also the Dutch ones. In the colonial law, Minke is still a Native although he has a privilegiatum private-right in the law as a noble Javanese. For their marriage- case, the Court applies the European law for Annelies.
The colonial law instructs her to go to Nederland. Annelies always calls herself a native, but she has to live in a foreign country.
She shocks in her double and ambivalent identity. In the Indo society, there is a group of humans who disavow their native- blood, e. They prefer more to be Dutch than Indonesian. Ida pretends to dislike rijsttafel Indonesian foods and tries to speak Dutch language as good as possible. She also pretends that she speaks Malay badly. Leoni van Oudijck is a lazy lady; as a wife of the resident, she does not want to organize the social activities in Labuwangi.
She is an ideal Dutch woman. Indirectly he said that the white identity is not always perfect The wife of Regent Soenario always tries to use the Solo tradition. She gives an impression that she wants to show Solo tradition to the society of Labuwangi, Jawa Timur. She takes a coachman from Solo who wears the Keraton-Solo costume. Resistance and Mimicry The Mimicry is a behavior that is stimulated by the inferiority.
The mimic man covers the lacks and the inferiority with an imitation of the behavior of the Superiors. They cover their lacks which are showed by the Superiors demonstrating their equal ability. Homi Bhabha relates the mimicry act with resistance. Richard King said that the colonial space is an agonistic space. That means that the relation between the colonizer and the colonized has a competitive feature. In my opinion, the mimic man imitates at the same time shows his competitiveness.
To be a good mimic man, he shows to the Superior that he has the same ability.
The ability of competitive power of the mimic man, in the end, becomes a weapon to survive and attack the Superior. The Javanese Nobleman, in the first time took a highest position in their society. The presence of colonizer change their position in a lower degree.
They become a Dutch government employer as a regent who is under controlled directly by Resident. Governor can discharge the regents according to a proposal of resident. Fasseur 25 noted about the dismissal of twelve of regents din Jawa around Minke rejects to work in this tradition, he does not want to be a regent like his father and his brother.
He wants to be a writer who can express his thoughts and opinions. Minke, as a mimic man, resists transitively. Van Oudijck proposes a dismissal for this Regent because of his problems with gambling, corruption and alcoholism. Raden Ayu, after his rejection of her demands, starts secretly to organize a little rebellion and to use some of the magic.
They swore to be loyal to Van Oudijck and the Dutch government. The resistance by using magic is a part of resistance of mimicry which disturbs the colonizers. They feel the resistance, but it is very difficult for them to find its source. Otto van Oudijck said that it looks like the power inside a quiet volcano, as a power to disturb and annoy others.
In the end, the mimic man becomes the menace and danger for the authotity of the colonial people because with resemblance the mimic man can not be accused of resistance. The resistance to colonialism takes place in the Dutch-Indies literary works. Novel Max Havelaar portrays the injustice and oppression in Dutch colonialism, especially with the story about Saijah and Adinda Dolk, To follow Multatuli, Boeka, pseudonym of P. C Hansen, writes his novels with the theme of poverty and sufferings of the Natives, and he defends the Native in the context of Dutch prejudices: lazy, apathetic, fatalistic and obedient Hartoko, BM presents colonized figures who speak about their colonial experience, their struggle against colonial injustice.
Novel DSK, as one form of colonial discourse, is characterized by contradictions, by the ambivalence between fantasy and desire: DSK sees the East as a beautiful place, but mysterious. This novel represents the Dutch invitation for natives to work together, following the mission of civilization, but the invitation is constrained by the attitude which is considered contrary to the demands of the European ideal standards: dedicated, diligent, and transparent.
Even so in DSK , not all of the natives are constructed as lazy people. There are also diligent natives and some Europeans are lazy. In the view of DSK, the objectives of the Dutch East Indies government, which are to bring prosperity to the people, can be met by the ideal of colonial subjects in both parties working together in a diligent, dedicated, and transparent way.
DSK criticized some European people who just want to accumulate wealth in the Dutch East Indies to bring back to Europe, and recognizes the nobility as a tool to control the common people. As a novel which was published in Dutch colonial period, DSK is a novel that dares to show 'depravity' of Dutch lives by the behavior of the governmental elite, both native and Dutch, including their environment such as family and friends.
BM presents the colonial experience of the occupied, which marks that the ideals of education and civilization from Europe are tainted by their own attitudes towards indigenous people and their discriminatory practices in law and society. This is confirmed by the existence of 'depravity', as depicted in the DSK. The attitude "sumangga Kersa" or permissive attitude , which emerges from feudalism, perpetuates colonialism.
This is strongly criticized in BM in the denial of the opportunity for Minke to become a regent. Camouflage is the resistance-choice of Soenario and his family DSK.
In front of the Dutch, they obey and cooperate with Resident Otto van Oudijck, but secretly send witchcraft. This type of transitive resistance takes the second form, namely avoiding domination of the colonists by agreeing but acting the opposite way. Minke and Nyai Ontosoroh are at first mimic people without awareness on aspects of resistance, but later on change to become conscious of transitive resistance; the civilizing mission of the Dutch, which they follow, provide them the opportunity to resist.
Colonial court forces them to realize their indigenousness. This research reveals that both novels, which observe the period of Dutch colonialism, voice the resistance to the West in different ways. They are ready to resist when they are disturbed or attacked. The voice of resistance in this novel is also indicated by the fate of the main character, the mental defeat of main character.
He admits that in addition to a transparent and rational life, there are mysteries in life. This novel takes the reader to an understanding that the criteria of the West read colonial discourse are not the only determinating and winning ones. These two novels remind us of the political compartmentalization of human beings in occupied Indonesia, based on race or ancestry , and the differentiation of facilities: education, law, settlement, and other public facilities.
Legal racial treatment and apartheid have been implemented Mohamad, ; Locher-Scholten, ; Muntolib Jakarta : LP3ES, Allen, Pamela. Reading Matters:. Bakdi Sumanto. Tangerang: Penerbit Indonesia Tera, Bandel, Katrin. Sastra, Perempuan, Seks, the second edition. Yogyakarta: Jalasutra, Beekman, E. The Hidden Force. Louis Couperus. London: Quartet Encounter, Bartels, Dieter. This paper was presented at the First Conference on Maluku Research.
University of Hawaii at Manoa. Center for Southeast Asian Studies. Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture. London and New York:Routledge, Colonial Discourse and Postcolonial Theory.
Patrick William and Laura Chrisman, eds and introducers. New York-Singapore: Harvester Wheatsheaf, Question of Cultural Identity. Stuart Hall dan Paul du Gay, eds. Bloembergen, Marieke. Polisi Zaman Hindia Belanda. Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kompas, Couperus, Louis.
Amsterdam: J. Veens Uitgeversmaatschappij. De Stille Kracht Amsterdam: P. De Stille Kracht atau Kekuatan Diam, transl.
Cristina Dewi Elbers. Darban, H. Ahmad Adaby. Islam di Tengah Perjuangan Bangsa Indonesia. Daum, P.
Ups and Downs of Life in the Indies.Koh Young Hoon. The Hidden Force. I liked that I get to learn about the condition of Java during the Dutch rule and was sad to discover that their condition is as worse as the Philippines have experienced during the Spanish, Japanese and American rule.
Alfathri Aldin. Book cover. As the war went on, however, Indonesians were dismayed by the austerity of wartime rationing and by increasingly harsh measures taken by the Japanese military. New Feature: Prentice Hall Nida, E. Martinet, who explained the condition of Annelies and what the author was trying to communicate when he wrote about Annelies, and the La Croix sisters who were trying to help Minke become a successful Javanese who could lead Indonesia to rebel against Dutch rule.
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