About face 3: the essentials of interaction design / Alan Cooper, Robert Reimann , and Dave the Goal-Directed Design methods described in About Face. About Face: The Essentials of Interaction Design, Fourth Edition . the parts of Chapter 3 concerned with cognitive processing originally appeared in an. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On May 7, , Alan Cooper and others published About Face 3: The Essentials of Interaction Design.
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When the first edition of About Face was published in , the idea of designing products based on human goals was a revolutionary concept. Thanks to the. Cooper A., Reiman R., Cronin D. About Face 3: The Essentials of Interaction Design. Файл формата pdf; размером 11,51 МБ. Добавлен пользователем. Alan Cooper, Robert Reimann, About Face 3 The first part describes the Goal- Directed Design process (pdf) in much greater detail than in.
Personas will supercharge your work, too, and help you take your designs to the next level. I hope that those who are unfamiliar with personas will read this series of articles, divided into two parts, and give them a try and that those who are opposed to their use will reconsider their position. What Is A Persona? A persona is a way to model, summarize and communicate research about people who have been observed or researched in some way. A persona is depicted as a specific person but is not a real individual; rather, it is synthesized from observations of many people.
Each persona represents a significant portion of people in the real world and enables the designer to focus on a manageable and memorable cast of characters, instead of focusing on thousands of individuals. Personas aid designers to create different designs for different kinds of people and to design for a specific somebody, rather than a generic everybody. A persona document should clearly communicate and summarize research data.
While a persona is usually presented as a one-pager document, it is more than just a deliverable — it is a way to communicate and summarize research trends and patterns to others. Each project will dictate a certain approach to producing persona documents. Image: Interaction Design View large version I emphasize this distinction because many people think of a persona and the document that captures essential elements of the persona as the same thing — they are not.
For designers looking for a jump start on creating persona documents, I highly recommend the persona poster template by Creative Companion. This poster organizes and formats all of the important information that a designer would need to create an amazing one-page deliverable.
Understanding the historical context and what personas meant to their progenitor will help us understand what personas can mean to us designers. Alan Cooper interviewed several people among the intended audience of a project he was working on and got to know them so well that he pretended to be them as a way of brainstorming and evaluating ideas from their perspective.
This method-acting technique allowed Cooper to put users front and center in the design process as he created software.
As Cooper moved from creating software himself to consulting, he quickly discovered that, to be successful, he needed a way to help clients see the world from his perspective, which was informed directly by a sample set of intended users.
The process of developing personas and the way in which they are used today have evolved since then, but the premise remains the same: Deeply understanding users is fundamental to creating exceptional software.
Personas are an essential part of goal-directed design. Each group of users researched is represented by a persona, which in turn is represented by a document.
Several personas are not uncommon in a typical project. Goal-directed design combines new and old methodologies from ethnography, market research and strategic planning, among other fields, in a way to simultaneously address business needs, technological requirements and limitations and user goals. Personas are a core component of goal-directed design. I have found that understanding the fundamentals of this goal-directed approach to design first will help the designer understand and properly use personas.
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In the summer of , I was fortunate enough to become an intern at Cooper, which is where I learned among other things how to use personas. At Cooper, I found that, while personas are easy to understand conceptually, mastering their use with finesse and precision would take me many months. There, I witnessed everyone on the team and even the clients referring to personas by name in almost every discussion, critique and work session we had.
I learned that personas are an essential part of what constitutes the goal-directed process. I learned that personas, though important, are never used in isolation, but rather are implemented in conjunction with other processes, concepts and methods that support and augment their use.
This is an objective that a persona wants or needs to fulfill by using software. The software would aid the persona to accomplish their end goal s by enabling them to accomplish their tasks via certain features. Scenario s. This is a narrative that describes how a persona would interact with software in a particular context to achieve their end goal s. The three parts of goal-directed design are most effective when used together.
Cooper A., Reiman R., Cronin D. About Face 3: The Essentials of Interaction Design
For instance, in order for a sprinter to reach their potential, they need a place to run and a finish line to cross. Without a scenario or end goal, the sprinter would have nothing to do or strive for. View large version Personas, end goals and scenarios relate to one another in the same way that the main character in a novel or movie goes on a journey to accomplish an objective.
How Are Personas Created?
Create archetypical models of those groups, based on the patterns found. Drawing from that understanding of users and the model of that understanding, create user-centered designs. Share those models with other team members and stakeholders. What Are Personas Used For? Personas can and should be used throughout the creative process, and they can be used by all members of the software development and design team and even by the entire company.
Here are some of the uses they can be put to: Build empathy. When a designer creates a persona, they are crafting the lens through which they will see the world.
Develop focus. Personas help us to define who the software is being created for and who not to focus on. Having a clear target is important.
For projects with more than one user type, a list of personas will help you to prioritize which users are more important than others. Communicate and form consensus. More often than not, designers work on multidisciplinary teams with people with vastly different expertise, knowledge, experience and perspectives. As a deliverable, the personas document helps to communicate research findings to people who were not able to be a part of the interviews with users.
Soon thereafter, Eubanks and Kildall invited Cooper to join them at Digital Research as one of four founders of their research and development department.
During the s, Alan Cooper authored several business applications including Microphone II for Windows and an early, critical-path project management program called SuperProject.
Cooper sold SuperProject to Computer Associates in , where it achieved success in the business-to-business marketplace. Microsoft decided not to release the product as a shell for users, but rather to transform it into a professional development tool for their QuickBASIC programming language called Visual Basic , which was widely used for business application development for Windows computers.
This innovation allowed any 3rd party developer to write a widget control as a DLL, put it in the Visual Basic directory, and Visual Basic would find it, communicate with it, and present it to the user as a seamless part of the program.
The widget would appear in the tool palette and appropriate menus, and users could incorporate it into their Visual Basic applications. During the presentation, Gates took particular note of Cooper's innovative work creating the VBX interface.
Within a few years, Alan Cooper had begun to articulate some of his basic design principles. Cooper interviewed the users of his client's products and discovered the common threads that made these people happy. Born of this practice was the use of personas as design tools. Cooper preached his vision in two books.
In it, Cooper introduces a comprehensive set of practical design principles, essentially a taxonomy for software design. Think about your users.
Cooper introduced the ideas of software application posture such as a "sovereign posture" where an application uses most of the space and waits for user input or a "transient posture" for software that does not run or engage with the user all the time.Alan Cooper professes his opinions unapologetically, but that's to be expected. What was most useful is the process of design and the principles of design which can obviously be improved on but at the core is timeless.
Successfully reported this slideshow. Designs created by students who used personas and scenarios pink and blue scored higher than the designs of those who used neither gray in a type of usability test called a heuristic analysis.
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