Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. SMBUF SMB University: Selling Cisco SMB Foundation Solutions. Networking Fundamentals. archive of html files, format, and in other formats as may prove . of selected important network applications, or the basics of network. all part of, computer networks let us share information and resources. In business , In this chapter, you'll begin by relating networks to situations and concepts.

Networking Basics Pdf

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2. 1. Introduction. -A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices -Each of the devices on the network can be thought of as a node; each. as server and other act as clients. A server is simply a computer, that available the network resources and provides service to other computers when they request. Download free Basic Networking Tutorial course material and training (PDF ebook on 21 pages).

Routing Fundamentals and Subnets Target Audience The target audience is anyone who desires a practical, technical introduction to the field of networking. This includes high school students, community college students, and lifelong-learning students who are interested in careers as network technicians, network engineers, network administrators, and network help-desk staff.

Course Objectives The CCNA certification indicates knowledge of networking for the small office, home office SOHO market, and the ability to work in small businesses or organizations using networks that have fewer than nodes. Course Overview The course has been designed for 70 contact hours. Approximately 35 hours will be designated to lab activities and 35 hours will be spent on curriculum content.

A case study on structured cabling is required, but format and timing will be determined by the Local Academy. The following changes have taken place since CCNA version 2. Course Outline Module 1. Introduction to Networking Overview 1. Networking Fundamentals Overview 2. Networking Media Overview 3. Cable Testing Overview 4. What this means is that there are multiple technologies and protocols that are built on top of each other in order for communication to function more easily.

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Each successive, higher layer abstracts the raw data a little bit more, and makes it simpler to use for applications and users. It also allows you to leverage lower layers in new ways without having to invest the time and energy to develop the protocols and applications that handle those types of traffic. The language that we use to talk about each of the layering scheme varies significantly depending on which model you use.

Regardless of the model used to discuss the layers, the path of data is the same. As data is sent out of one machine, it begins at the top of the stack and filters downwards. At the lowest level, actual transmission to another machine takes place. At this point, the data travels back up through the layers of the other computer. Each layer has the ability to add its own "wrapper" around the data that it receives from the adjacent layer, which will help the layers that come after decide what to do with the data when it is passed off.

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This model defines seven separate layers. The layers in this model are: Application: The application layer is the layer that the users and user-applications most often interact with.

Network communication is discussed in terms of availability of resources, partners to communicate with, and data synchronization. Presentation: The presentation layer is responsible for mapping resources and creating context. It is used to translate lower level networking data into data that applications expect to see. Session: The session layer is a connection handler. It creates, maintains, and destroys connections between nodes in a persistent way. Transport: The transport layer is responsible for handing the layers above it a reliable connection.

In this context, reliable refers to the ability to verify that a piece of data was received intact at the other end of the connection. This layer can resend information that has been dropped or corrupted and can acknowledge the receipt of data to remote computers. Network: The network layer is used to route data between different nodes on the network.

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It uses addresses to be able to tell which computer to send information to. This layer can also break apart larger messages into smaller chunks to be reassembled on the opposite end. Data Link: This layer is implemented as a method of establishing and maintaining reliable links between different nodes or devices on a network using existing physical connections. Physical: The physical layer is responsible for handling the actual physical devices that are used to make a connection.

This layer involves the bare software that manages physical connections as well as the hardware itself like Ethernet.

Chapter 1: What is a Network?

As you can see, there are many different layers that can be discussed based on their proximity to bare hardware and the functionality that they provide. It defines the four separate layers, some of which overlap with the OSI model: Application: In this model, the application layer is responsible for creating and transmitting user data between applications.

The applications can be on remote systems, and should appear to operate as if locally to the end user. The communication is said to take place between peers. Transport: The transport layer is responsible for communication between processes.

This level of networking utilizes ports to address different services. It can build up unreliable or reliable connections depending on the type of protocol used. Internet: The internet layer is used to transport data from node to node in a network.

This layer is aware of the endpoints of the connections, but does not worry about the actual connection needed to get from one place to another.

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IP addresses are defined in this layer as a way of reaching remote systems in an addressable manner. Link: The link layer implements the actual topology of the local network that allows the internet layer to present an addressable interface.

It establishes connections between neighboring nodes to send data. This made it easier to implement and allowed it to become the dominant way that networking layers are categorized. Interfaces Interfaces are networking communication points for your computer.

Each interface is associated with a physical or virtual networking device. Typically, your server will have one configurable network interface for each Ethernet or wireless internet card you have. In addition, it will define a virtual network interface called the "loopback" or localhost interface.

This is used as an interface to connect applications and processes on a single computer to other applications and processes.

You can see this referenced as the "lo" interface in many tools.

Many times, administrators configure one interface to service traffic to the internet and another interface for a LAN or private network. In DigitalOcean, in datacenters with private networking enabled, your VPS will have two networking interfaces in addition to the local interface.

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The "eth0" interface will be configured to handle traffic from the internet, while the "eth1" interface will operate to communicate with the private network. Protocols Networking works by piggybacking a number of different protocols on top of each other. In this way, one piece of data can be transmitted using multiple protocols encapsulated within one another.

We will talk about some of the more common protocols that you may come across and attempt to explain the difference, as well as give context as to what part of the process they are involved with. We will start with protocols implemented on the lower networking layers and work our way up to protocols with higher abstraction. Media Access Control Media access control is a communications protocol that is used to distinguish specific devices.

Each device is supposed to get a unique MAC address during the manufacturing process that differentiates it from every other device on the internet. Addressing hardware by the MAC address allows you to reference a device by a unique value even when the software on top may change the name for that specific device during operation.

Media access control is one of the only protocols from the link layer that you are likely to interact with on a regular basis. IP The IP protocol is one of the fundamental protocols that allow the internet to work. IP addresses are unique on each network and they allow machines to address each other across a network. Networks can be linked together, but traffic must be routed when crossing network boundaries.

This protocol assumes an unreliable network and multiple paths to the same destination that it can dynamically change between. There are a number of different implementations of the protocol.

The most common implementation today is IPv4, although IPv6 is growing in popularity as an alternative due to the scarcity of IPv4 addresses available and improvements in the protocols capabilities. It is used to send messages between devices to indicate the availability or error conditions.

These packets are used in a variety of network diagnostic tools, such as ping and traceroute. Usually ICMP packets are transmitted when a packet of a different kind meets some kind of a problem. Basically, they are used as a feedback mechanism for network communications.Zones are configured into a router by an administrator.

Ethernet Switching AppleTalk Routing Basics All routable protocols work by dividing the physical devices on a network into logical groups. IP addresses are defined in this layer as a way of reaching remote systems in an addressable manner.

It does not verify that data has been received on the other end of the connection. Usually ICMP packets are transmitted when a packet of a different kind meets some kind of a problem. It can build up unreliable or reliable connections depending on the type of protocol used. Our Computer Networking Tutorial is designed for beginners and professionals. Each physical network segment is assigned a network number by the routers on the segment.

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