"PDF" in American English. › [ U ] abbreviation for portable document format: a system for making computer documents that can be used with any computer system and sent from one computer to another. 可移植文檔格式, 採用可移植文檔格式的文檔，PDF文檔（portable. PDF definition: 1. abbreviation for portable document format: a system for storing and moving documents between computers that usually only allows them to be. The most popular dictionary and thesaurus for learners of English. Meanings and definitions of words with pronunciations and translations.
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PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. Contributors to the Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology xi Trevor A. Harley Dundee University Rachel. A Steve Jobs keynote presentation is an extraordinary expe- rience, and he. a passionate perfectionist and a visionary Longman-Grammar and. centconmosazy.ga So what's new? NEW! 'Extra help' section includes maps and the innovative 'Let's Talk' section, showing how people really speak.
The words appearing in the picture are given in the box below, and by moving the mouse over the picture one can see the words and get their meanings.
Thus, it is not only easier to understand some words, but learners can acquire new words in meaningful contexts by associating an object with a word. Also, the dictionary features study pages, where learners can find detailed information on the dictionary foreword, introduction, using the dictionary, grammar codes, labels, Teaching English with Technology, vol.
What is more, the dictionary encompasses a mini-atlas, with general maps of continents and countries. The final component of MED are wordlists, where a user can add words in given categories, add notes to them, print the list or use flashcards vocabulary practice.
The basic part of CLD is A-Z, where the entries for words are displayed, with definitions, examples, pronunciation, usage notes, etc. Another component of the dictionary is exercises, where the user can practice grammar and vocabulary in drag-and-drop and multiple-choice exercises. The areas covered are adjectives, countability, idioms, irregular verbs, phrasal verbs, prefixes, suffixes, verb patterns.
There are also picture exercises, consisting in dragging words from the list onto the objects in the picture. While doing the exercise, the user's score is kept, and it is possible to see the score, see the current answer, all answers, go to the relevant study page in the dictionary, clear the answers or go to the next exercise.
It must be said that especially picture exercises are an interesting and effective way of learning and revising vocabulary, and thanks to the user identification and scorekeeping features it is possible to assess one's progress.
The other component of the program is a picture dictionary, where one can move the mouse over the picture to see the words appearing in it, and click to go to the entry of the word. There one can read about some of the important aspects of language and do the exercises. Working with the dictionary MED, just as most Machine-Readable Dictionaries on the market, allow the following operations: copying an entry, printing an entry, adding a note to an entry annotating entries and, unlike other dictionaries, adding a word to one's wordlist, in order to practice a list of words later on.
"PDF" in English
As for CLD, it is possible to find a word, listen to its BE and AmE pronunciation, practise it by recording oneself and playing back, copy the entry or example, copy it directly to a word- processor, print the entry or part of it by highlighting the piece of text to be printed , annotate an entry, and use back and forward buttons or the history list. The Search Panel allows the user to work with annotations, namely view them, search for a word in the annotations, change and delete them.
Integrating the dictionary with other programs Nowadays, it is becoming more and more important for a dictionary to be flexible and integratable with other Windows programs, in order to save the time and allow the user to get the definition without having to switch to the dictionary and type a word in. As for MED, it has various possibilities for such a mode of work. If the dictionary is open alongside the word-processor, simply moving the mouse pointer to any word in a word-processor text makes the dictionary display that entry.
However, in order to make that possible, both programs can't be maximized, which may not be very comfortable for the user. Thus, another chance is to use the "QuickSearch" display mode, which is a small window staying always on top of other programs. Then, you do not have to switch to the dictionary window or run the word-processor minimized, and by moving the mouse pointer on any word in the text makes MED give its definition.
This is the same in programs without cursor, such as an Internet browser, where positioning the mouse pointer on the word makes the dictionary give its definition in an instant. It must be said that this way of integrating the dictionary with all Windows programs is as simple as it can be. Pointing a word with a mouse pointer and getting its definition - can it be easier? This way of providing instant lookup, though certainly not very difficult, is definitely less fast than just moving the mouse pointer to a word, as was the case with MED.
Teaching English with Technology, vol. In order to do it, one must integrate the word-processor with the dictionary using the Bookcase. However, I have tried to do it numerous times, and for some unknown reason I was unable to do it. Interface and mode of use As for MED, it has a clear, uncluttered interface, with tasteful colour combinations dominated by red.
The program screen is divided into a few boxes: the biggest one in the centre is where the entries are displayed. To the right of it, there is the place for usage notes and user notes to appear. To the left of it, there is a small box at the top where the desired word is typed in, under it there is the alphabetic list of all words of the dictionary, and under it there is the last box, where the results of a search for a desired word in phrases is displayed.
While clicking on these, the user gets a list of commands enabled in a given menu. The requested word opens in the central window, and scrolling it up and down one can get through previous or next entries.
All the words accessed before can be quickly recovered from the History menu.
The creators of the dictionary decided not to use icons, and instead gave text instructions everywhere in the program, which seems to be a good idea, having in mind that icons can be interpreted differently. CLD has a very simple and intuitive interface, with the dictionary divided into two windows.
One is the Search Panel, where the user types in a word, chooses a word from a list of words, uses filters to search the entire contents of the dictionary. From the Search Panel the user can access also the website of Cambridge dictionaries and the user annotations. The main dictionary window opens next to the Search Panel window, and on the top of it there are a few icons giving access to the options, as well as the underlined hyperlinks to exercises, pictures, study pages or related words.
The program is directed to intermediate users, and consequently the program is much easier to use, the icons are the same as in other applications.
Cambridge Dictionary Books
The user does not have to look through the program to find the desired option mainly due to the fact that the dictionary is much simpler than MED.
Ease of use and reliability of operation Teaching English with Technology, vol. It does not have heavy hardware requirements, so it does not take too much for it to load or look up a word. No crashes have been observed, and it did not cause any malfunctioning of the system.
It is quite flexible in use also in that while installing the program the user can choose the 'Normal' installation, copying all the disc contents but the sound files to the hard disc, and requiring the disc in the CD-ROM drive for use; or 'Full' installation, copying the entire contents of MED to the hard disc, making the dictionary fully functional without the CD-ROM.
This demands MB of hard disc space, but thanks to such a solution it might be possible to use two dictionaries alongside: a monolingual one MED and a bilingual one, put into the CD-ROM drive.
It is reliable in its operation, does not cause any crashes or stalls. It does not take too much RAM memory when working in the background, so it is perfectly possible to use it alongside with other applications. Just as with MED, it is possible to install the program in the full version, copying all dictionary data to hard disc, and taking 96 MB hard disc space. However, in this case sound files stay on the CD-ROM, so it is still necessary to make full use of the program, and it is not possible to use another dictionary e.
Assistance to the user MED is relatively user-friendly, as it has a number of features giving assistance to the user while learning how to operate the program. Above all, the program is accompanied by a printed CD-ROM user guide, giving advice on installation, getting started, display modes and menus, notes and lists, advanced searching, study aids, printing and copying.
In this way, the user can get basic information before starting the program. Another help facility is the guided tour, with onscreen animations explaining what MED is, how it is different from other MRDs, how to get started with it, how to use advanced searching options, how MED can help in teaching and learning.
Next, users who are connected to the Internet can use online guide. Thus, it seems that no user should have any problems with making the most of MED, due to such extensive and varied set of help tools. As for CLD, it is intuitive and easy to use enough, and most probably because of that it does not have such elaborate help facilities as a guided tour or online help.
It also has a printed User's Guide, with the most important aspects of working with the dictionary explained in Teaching English with Technology, vol. As in case of most programs, CLD has a Help facility, where all features of the program are explained, such as how to get started, how to search for a word using the search panel, how to use the content window, launch and quit the program, copy and print, use exercises, study pages or the picture component.
It seems that taking into account the fact that CLD is a simple program without many advanced options, the above ways of providing help are enough. Customising the dictionary The key to using MRDs by students and teachers is finding the ways to subject the tool to the people's needs, rather than using the tool as it allows to be used.
Usually, commercial-made dictionaries give little possibilities for being customized. One is the possibility of creating wordlists, namely adding selected words to custom-made categories, adding notes to them, then checking one's retention by reviewing the wordlist, going to selected entries, and reviewing the notes. Wordlists are flexible enough in that they allow adding new words, deleting them, printing the entire wordlist, renaming it.
Another way of customizing the dictionary is to add one's own comments to the entries, which are displayed to the right of the entry proper. However, as is the case with other MRDs, it is not possible to input one's own words or to update the dictionary in any way e.
The CACD is the first learners' dictionary to directly address this problem. Coverage Since one of its major claims on its cover is its excellent coverage of 2, academic words from over 20 subject areas, along with 1 , "general academic words like concept, equivalent, and paradigm " CACJ , back cover , I decided to test it using an article by Patzold annotated in Pedagogical lexicography Today Dolezal and McCreary Since this article by Patzold addresses the treatment of academic vocabulary in bilingual dictionaries, it provides an appropriate comparison with the CACJ.
In my review of this new dictionary from Gambridge, I will use the item lists Patzold developed for environmental terms, computer terms, idioms, collocations, and Dictionaries:Journal ofthe Dictionary Society ofNorth America 30 , The environmental items, augmented by another 20 more recent items, include biodegradable, bio-fuel, fossilfuel, ghbal warming, green revolution, and sixtyfive more, seventy in all.
The computer items, augmented by ten updated items, include laptop, pixel, toolbar, mouse, boot up, and fifty-five more, sixty in all. The idioms , numbering fifty, include it's all right, you bet, and have, had it [with sth] , and forty seven more. The collocations, numbering fifty, include sound asleep, bored stiff, heated debate, break the news, heavy sleeper, and forty-five more.
Cambridge International Dictionary of Idioms
The syntacticitems , numbering fifty, include arrive at [sth], be certain to [inf. In the two academic areas, environmental terms and computer terms, the CACJ has excellent coverage, especially compared to the German dictionaries that Patzold reviewed.
The scores given below note the percentage of items included in the CACJ compared to the Collins German dictionary, the top scoring English-German dictionary in Patzold's test, followed by the average score for the four English-German dictionaries that he tested Patzold ,42 , followed by the scores for an English-Japanese dictionary published by Sanseido that I tested McCreary , Learn 2.
Another component of the dictionary is exercises, where the user can practice grammar and vocabulary in drag-and-drop and multiple-choice exercises. The search results are visible in the box under the typing box, and are displayed in the following order: For numerous students of ESL, this choice can be difficult, since the available bilingual dictionaries in their languages may not be well developed at this academic level; moreover, monolingual collegiate dictionaries in the US and the UK do not fully meet the needs of most ESI.
In the two academic areas, environmental terms and computer terms, the CACJ has excellent coverage, especially compared to the German dictionaries that Patzold reviewed. However, as is the case with other MRDs, it is not possible to input one's own words or to update the dictionary in any way e.
Working with the dictionary MED, just as most Machine-Readable Dictionaries on the market, allow the following operations: copying an entry, printing an entry, adding a note to an entry annotating entries and, unlike other dictionaries, adding a word to one's wordlist, in order to practice a list of words later on. Wecan'tjustturn our backs on them.
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